Absorption - Percentage of moisture
absorption by weight after immersion in
Etching - Process of applying a
solution of hydrochloric or muriatic
acid and water to the exposed surface of
Cast Stone in order to remove the cement
film from the aggregates, achieving a
fine-grained finish which simulates natural cut stone.
Admixtures - Chemicals used to improve
the physical properties of Cast Stone.
Content - The amount of entrained air
in wet cast units.
Air-Entraining Admixtures - Chemicals used to develop entrained air in wet cast units.
Voids - Surface imperfections with
restricted size and occurrences in cast
Anchor - Metal device used for
securing Cast Stone to a rigid
Architrave - The bottom portion of an
entablature bearing on the column
capitals and supporting frieze.
Arris - Angle, corner, or edge of a
Cast Stone unit.
Ashlar - Flat units square or
rectangle in size, bonded and laid in
Backup - Mix Concrete, normally
composed of concrete, sand, gravel, and
grey cement; used for the unexposed
portion of Cast Stone.
Baluster - A small column or other
vertical shape when placed in a series
constitutes a miniature colonnade which
is called a balustrade.
Band - Course. See Belt Course.
Course - Continuous horizontal course
that sets on the brick ledge. It is the
first course set in a wall.
Joint - The joint which the stone sets on. It is normally filled with mortar or backer rod and sealant.
- Continuous horizontal course of Cast
Stone incorporated in a wall above the
base course and below the frieze.
Bevel - See
Bughole - An unacceptable air void in
a finished surface.
Nose - Convex molding which usually
starts at the top of the Cast Stone unit
and returns to the predominant face.
Capital - Uppermost member of a column
or a pilaster crowning the shaft.
Stone - A refined architectural
concrete building unit manufactured to
simulate natural cut stone, used in unit
Coarse - Aggregate predominately retained on the No. 4
Coated - Rebar coated with a
zinc alloy or epoxy. This rebar is
normally used when rebar placement is
within 1-1/2 inches from an exposed
Chain - A stack of quoins.
- Slanted surface which connects two
external surfaces forming two arrises.
Coloring - The process of (or material
used for) tinting the hue of Cast Stone.
It is normally achieved through the use
of aggregates or inorganic iron oxide
Column - Supporting pillar, usually
consisting of a round shaft, a capital
and a base.
Coping - Stone unit used to cap off
the top of a wall. Its function is to
protect the wall from the natural
elements as well as adding an aesthetic
value to the wall.
Cornice - Molded piece at the top of
an entablature projected with an ogee
profile at the top leading edge with
other reliefs below.
Course - Horizontal scope of units
incorporated in a wall.
Cramp - "U" shaped metal anchors used
to attach two abutting units.
Crazing - A series of hairline cracks,
normally less than a thirty-second of an
inch in depth in the outer surface of a
concrete product. Crazing does not
constitute cause for rejection of Cast
Curing - The process of hydrating the
Portland Cement in Cast Stone to a
specified age or compressive strength in
a warm, moist environment.
Stone - Natural stone quarried and
dressed to an architectural shape.
Dentil - Block projections of an
entablature below the cornice course.
Dowel - Round (usually non-corrosive)
metal pin used in anchoring and aligning
Drip - Continuous grove cut or cast into the
bottom of the projecting edge of Cast
Stone in order to disrupt the capillary
attraction of water to the wall below.
Cast Concrete - Products Manufactured
from zero slump concrete. See Vibrant Dry
Edging - The hand tooling of the arris.
Efflorescence - Visually observable
signs of saline discharge onto a portion
of a masonry wall.
Entablature - Incorporates an
architrave, frieze, and cornice.
Entasis - The portion of a classic
column which has a diminishing arc on
the shaft. The lower third of the column
is straight (two-thirds entasis column).
Erection - Setting of large stones
usually with a crane.
Extrados - The outer portion of an
Face - The exposed portion of Cast Stone after
it is installed.
Facing Mix - Materials used for the
portion of Cast Stone which is exposed
to view after installed.
Fascia - A broad and well defined
continuous horizontal band of Cast Stone
at least header high.
Feather Edge - A thin edge with an
arris considerably less than ninety
degrees. It is so named because of its
frailty when handled. See Quirk Miter
Fillet - Continuous raised lug at the
top back edge of a window sill. It
serves as a moisture barrier and as a
seat for the window sash.
Aggregate - That portion of the
aggregates passing the 4.75-mm (No. 4)
sieve and retained on the No. 200
Fines - Aggregate passing a #4 sieve.
Finish - Final exposed surface of Cast
Stone. It is independent of color, but
it will control the color intensity.
Acid etching is the most popular Cast
Form - See Mold.
Frieze - Flat unit of an entablature
located between the architrave and
Bed - A horizontal joint completely
filled with mortar.
Grout - Mortar of pouring consistency.
Header - Stone unit running
horizontally over an opening in a wall.
Nor self supporting (see lintel).
Insert - A metal device cast into a
unit normally used for anchoring or
Incise - To cast concave or engrave.
Inscription - Characters incised into
Intrados - The inner portion of an
Jamb - The vertical unit running up the side of
Joint - Gap between masonry units
filled with mortar or backer rod and
Jointing Scheme - The jointing pattern
shown on contract documents.
Keystone - The unit at the center of
an arch. It is generally wedge shaped
when viewed in elevation.
Hook - A metal device embedded into
the Cast Stone for the purpose of
lifting and/or anchoring.
Lintel - A unit spanning an opening
and carrying the load of a wall above.
Lug - The portion of a Cast Stone unit running
beyond an opening horizontally into a
wall. The lug is normally less than a
foot in length.
Lug - Sill Window sill built into the wall
which runs horizontally beyond the
Masonry - Construction made by the
laying of units of substantial material
such as brick, block and Cast Stone.
Miter - The splicing of two Cast Stone
profiles at an angle. See Quirk.
Medallion - An ornamental block.
Model - The positive shape that
represents the final product. A mold is
formed around a model.
Modillion - Ornamental block located
under the corona of a cornice.
Molding - Any linear plane which
deviates from a flat surface.
Mortar - A blend of cement, lime,
sand, and water which is applied at a
pliable consistency to bond masonry
- A form in which Cast Stone is shaped. It
can be constructed from wood, plaster,
rubber, fiberglass, and other materials.
Mullion - A vertical member which
forms a separation from adjacent window
or door frames.
Pointing - See Tuck Pointing.
Precast - A concrete product not
poured in place.
- An end condition cast with a forty-five
degree angle and an edge put on the
point at a ninety-degree angle to
eliminate feather edging.
Quoin - Cast Stone block used to make
up a corner of a wall.
Recess - A depression in a flat
Reglet - A continuous groove cast or
cut into a Cast Stone unit to receive
Reinforcing - Rebar placed into a Cast
Stone unit during the manufacturing
process to augment the unit during
handling or to enable it to carry a
structural load (i.e. lintel).
Rebar - A deformed steel unit used for
reinforcing Cast Stone.
Relief - Ornamentation.
Reprise - An internal corner of a
Return - An external corner of a
Reveal - The side of an opening (as
for a window) between a frame and the
outer surface of a wall.
Rustication - An incision cast around
the outer edges of a unit to produce a
Sample - The specimen submitted to
represent the color and texture of Cast
Stone. This specimen dictates the
general range of the color and texture
of production pieces.
Setting - The mason's process of
installing and anchoring Cast Stone.
Setting Pads - Non-corrosive pads used
to set Cast Stone on in order to prevent
the bed joint from compressing at the
time of setting.
Setting - Drawing which the
Cast Stone manufacturer submits for
approval detailing all aspects of the
installation with piece markings and
final locations of stones.
Drawing - The drawing which the Cast
Stone manufacturer submits for approval
showing size and shape of pieces,
exposed faces, jointing, anchoring,
reinforcing and unit cross section.
Sill - A Cast Stone window sill that
fits within the masonry opening.
Soffit - The exposed underside portion
of a unit.
Spandrel - A unit spanning an opening
with bearing beyond the opening. It is
not normally load bearing, but self
Springer - A unit that is located at
the spring line of an arch.
Surround - An encasement of an
Template - A type of model used to
convey the pattern, shape, or profile to
be used by the manufacturer in the
Texture - The finish structure
consisting of visual and tactile surface
Tolerance - Allowable deviation from
Tracery - Arched ornamental work with
interlacing, branching lines. Usually
consists of openwork in the head of a
Tooled Finish - A finish obtained by
texturing either the mold or the Cast
Stone (ex. bushhammered, six-cut).
Trowel Finish - A finish normally
given to the back or unformed side of
Cast Stone. This finish may look
slightly different than the molded sides
of the piece.
- The final tooling or pointing of a raked
out mortar joint.
Tamp - Vibratory ramming of earth
moist, zero-slump concrete against a
rigid mold until it is densely
Volute - The scroll shaped ornament
forming the chief feature on an Ionic
Warp - Twist or bowing of final casting
measured by deviation from plane and
Wash - A sloping horizontal surface formed to
cause water to run off.
Water Repellent - Normally a clear
sealer sprayed or brushed on the exposed
portion of a masonry wall to deflect
Water table - The course of Cast Stone
that sits on the base course. This
course normally transcends an offset in
Weep-Hole - An opening normally in a
masonry head joint at the bottom of a
unit to allow any moisture behind it to
Plate - A square metal device cast
flush to the surface for attachment by
means of welding.
Cast Concrete - Products Manufactured
from measurable slump concrete.